The Royal Academy of Engineering’s website contains sections for password-protected user access. All information included on this website, including documents posted by the users of the site, is intended for information purposes only and does not represent advice. We make no representations or warranties as to the accuracy of the information contained on this website, and you should take appropriate precaution to verify it.

We have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information on the site that is accurate, comprehensive, and timely at the date of publication. However, human error and changes will occur. The Royal Academy of Engineering (The Academy) expressly disclaims any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, comprehensiveness, or suitability of the information for a particular purpose. The Academy has produced this document in good faith and is not responsible for any errors, omissions, or results obtained from the use of the information herein.

We cannot agree that the service will be fault free, or free of viruses or bugs. If a fault occurs in the service we will attempt to correct the fault as soon as we reasonably can. Your access to the site may be occasionally restricted to allow for repairs, maintenance or updating.

Privacy policy

Some personal information stored in user profiles, such as e-mail address and national honours etc. can be viewed by the users of each partition on the site. This site does not track any personal information other than logging the user's IP address and session information such as the time of login, the duration of the visit and the type of browser used. This information is recognised by the web server and is only used for system administration and to provide statistics, which the Academy uses to evaluate use of the site. This policy does not cover links within this site to other websites.

View our privacy policy

Copyright and other notice

Materials on this website are protected by copyright, trademark and other intellectual property and proprietary rights. You may use the Academy’s site and display, download on any single computer or print a single copy of any material for your personal or professional use provided you do not further copy or modify the page. You may not otherwise reproduce, copy, distribute or use any material on this website. Permanent copying and/or storage of material or reproduction or incorporation of any part of it in any other work in whatever media is expressly prohibited.

Where you are invited to submit any contribution to this website you agree, by submitting your contribution, to grant the Academy a perpetual, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sub-licensable right and licence to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, make available to the public and exercise all copyright and publicity rights with respect to your contribution worldwide, and also to incorporate your contribution in other works in any media in accordance with the restrictions set out in our privacy policy above.

If you wish to include information from this website on your own websites, please contact the web editor.

Third party sites

The Academy’s website contains links to third party resources on the web. Unless these sites have been created by the Academy, we do not endorse, approve or sanction (unless otherwise stated) nor are we responsible for any third party's products, services, acts or omissions. There is no association or connection between us and the third party (unless otherwise stated) save for the provision of the link. We do not act in partnership with nor as agent for or on behalf of the third party to whom we provide links. Accordingly, neither party may incur any debt or liability on behalf of the other party.

Our liability

While we endeavour to ensure that information on this website is correct, we shall not be liable for any damages arising from the use or inability to use the Academy’s website or any information contained on it or from any action or decision taken as a result of using the site or any such information.

To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law we disclaim liability for all implied or statutory warranties and conditions. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, in no event shall we, nor our employees, affiliates, agents or other representatives, be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages whatsoever including without limitation damages for loss of profits, loss of confidential or other information, business interruption arising from or in connection with the use of this website.

We do not exclude liability for death or personal injury.


You hereby undertake, as a condition of use of the Academy's website, to indemnify us against any loss or damage suffered by us as a result of any breach by you in the use of the site.


Any disputes arising from or in connection with the use of this website shall be governed by the laws of England and the parties submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts. We do not make any promise that the materials on the Academy's website are appropriate or available for use in locations outside the United Kingdom and using this site from territories where its use or material or contents is unlawful is prohibited.

The website is owned and operated by the Royal Academy of Engineering. Our postal address is 3 Carlton House Terrace London SW1Y 5DG. We can be reached by phone in UK office hours on +44 (0)20 7766 0600.

Summary of terms

Browser: Used to locate and display web pages via a software application. The most popular ones are Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Internet Explorer.

IP (Internet Protocol): All networks connected to the internet speak IP, the technical standard that allows data to be transmitted between two devices. TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol) is responsible for making sure messages get from one host to another and that the messages are understood.

IP address: If you are connected to the internet you have one, for example it may look something like this

Web server: Delivers (serves up) web pages to your computer.